Are NFTs Securities?

2021/08/25 Innoverview Read

NFT mania has reached such a fever pitch (see yesterday’s news of Visa buying a non-fungible token) that people are now comparing it to the initial coin offering boom of 2017. Of course, there’s one big difference: ICOs were touted as a chance to buy what amounted (very roughly) to a share in a project.

That meant these were, as many observers were happy to point out at the time, unregistered securities offerings, leading to a series of crackdowns by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and other regulators. Many of those enforcements took three or four years to work their way to a judgment or settlement, which sometimes reached into the millions of dollars, even when no outright fraud was alleged.

David Z. Morris is CoinDesk's Chief Insights Columnist. This article is excerpted from The Node, CoinDesk's daily roundup of the most pivotal stories in blockchain and crypto news. You can subscribe to get the full newsletter here

So if you’re a non-fungible token maker, you might reasonably hear a nagging voice in the back of your head wondering: Am I going to wake up three years from now to the Securities and Exchange Commission knocking on my door?

First, a caveat: I’m not a lawyer, and those who are will spend plenty of billable hours giving authoritative answers to questions about NFT regulation. But I have been reporting on financial regulation for a while, which is about the best definitely-not-legal-advice you can expect for free on the web.

Anyway, here’s the good news: Most NFTs currently circulating are almost certainly not securities. A security is generally defined as a claim on the future proceeds from the work of others, while an NFT is usually the product of work that has already been undertaken. The closest and most obvious comparison is to a painting: even if you buy it because you think the value of the thing will go up, you still only bought the thing itself, rather than any sort of secondary claim. The SEC is unlikely to take much interest.

Which makes it all the more strange that a good number of NFT series or adjacent projects are going out of their way to turn their nice little non-security collectibles into things the SEC would definitely take an interest in.

The most straightforward way that NFTs can become subject to SEC oversight is through fractionalization. Fractionalizing an NFT means allowing multiple investors to buy portions of it, instead of one person or entity having to own the whole thing. With CryptoPunks in particular regularly reaching multimillion dollar valuations, the appeal of just owning a piece of one as an investment is clear (even if to my mind it’s against the spirit of the entire endeavor, on which more in a bit). At least one marketplace,, is pursuing the idea.

We already know that such efforts are within the purview of the SEC. We know because there are already significant companies, particularly Masterworks, which fractionalizes physical art for investors. Masterworks registers its offerings with the SEC, though the company is not a registered broker. Nominally that’s because it is primarily an issuer – though it seems to be running a public over-the-counter board for art shares on its website, so I guess that’s also fine? Seems weird to me but, again, I’m not a lawyer.

But there are other NFTs that are moving even more clearly into securities territory, particularly by offering revenue distributions to current holders. Two examples are Buzzed Bears and Lazy Lions, which both attach certain governance rights to ownership. That, according to the projects, can include the right to redistribute the profits from future sales to current holders. Buzzed Bears even has a staking system that lets you “hibernate” your bears to increase returns, and the organizers are promising to sell merchandise to fill a DAO controlled by holders, so … yeah, that’s probably a security, baby.

(Source: Are Some NFTs Trying to Become Securities? | David Z. Morris - CoinDesk )